Tips and Tutorials

Wool
  • Spinning and Yarn FAQs

    Here are answers to some of the frequently asked questions I get about spinning and yarn in general. 

    Yarn Questions

    Q) I have some wool yarn that is scratchy. Is there anyway to make it softer like using hair conditioner?

    A) Unfortunately there is no good way to make wool softer because most likely you have a coarse wool you are dealing with. Sheep’s wool ranges from very fine soft fiber like Merino to thick coarse rug wool like Karakul. The larger the micron count, or diameter, the more coarse it will feel. Woolen yarns also tend to be itchier because the fibers are arranged in different directions and their cut ends protrude from the surface of the yarn more. 

    Usually anything over 24-25 microns starts to feel itchy on the skin, with anything over about 30 being uncomfortable. This is often mistaken for a wool allergy, which is actually pretty uncommon. Hair conditioners do little to affect the softness because you cannot change the diameter of the fiber. In fact, you may do damage to the yarn if you use something with the wrong pH. That is why it is always recommended using wash specifically formulated for wool.

    Q) I have a wool allergy. What other natural animal fibers can I use?

    A) See above. Wool allergies are actually not very common. What you are probably feeling is the cheap sweater effect. Or you may have a problem with the lanolin (natural grease) in the fiber. Try using 100% ultra fine wool like Merino. You will not itch. If you have a true allergy to sheep's wool, you can try alpaca, which has no natural grease and is hypoallergenic. Again, be careful with what you choose because adult alpaca can be coarse as well so you will want to choose a fine baby alpaca. 

    Q) What is the difference between woolen and worsted yarn?

    A) These are basically two different spinning and fiber preparation techniques that result in a smooth dense finished yarn in the case of worsted vs. a loftier, less dense woolen spun yarn that is good for sweaters and insulating fabric. Here is a table from The American Wool Council that shows the different characteristics:

    Woolen Worsted
    Spun from short wool fibers
    (1-3 inches long)
    Spun from long wool fibers
    (more than 3")
    Spun from medium or coarse diameter wool fibers Spun from fine diameter wool fibers
    Fibers are washed, scoured and carded Fibers are washed, scoured, carded, combed and drawn
    Lower tensile strength than worsteds Higher tensile strength than woolens
    Low to medium twist Tighter twist
    Bulky, uneven yarn Fine, smooth yarn
    Soft, fuzzy appearance Crisp, smooth appearance
    Heavier weight Lighter weight
    Not as durable as worsteds More durable than woolens
    Does not hold crease well Holds crease well

  • Tips for Buying Raw Fleece

    Are you thinking about buying a raw fleece? All the choices can be a little overwhelming at first. But don’t worry, I’ve put together some tips to help you pick a fleece with confidence and find one that you will love working with.

    What to expect when you’re inspecting

    fleece sales at SVFF 2014 by 222handspun.comThere are several factors that go into evaluating a fleece. There’s a bit of an art and science to it. You may not get it 100% “right” at first, but that is how you learn. Understanding what to look for and what you want ahead of time will help you avoid buyer’s remorse.

    Shopping at Fiber Festivals and Fairs

    Festivals usually have tables lined up with the different breed types organized together. Each fleece will be in a clear plastic bag and have a tag with the details and pricing. Think about what breeds and colors you like before you go inside so that you don’t get overwhelmed. If you are not sure you can ask a staff member to help you. They will likely ask you if you have a specific project in mind to help you narrow down choices. Some good "beginner" fleeces are breeds like Romney, Bluefaced Leicester, Jacob, Shetland, and Finn. There are plenty of other good ones, but these come to mind when thinking about easy scouring and fiber preparation. 

    If there is a skirting table available, you can ask to see the fleece taken out of the bag. A staff member will unroll the fleece on the table and allow you to inspect it. Some shows do not have the space or staff for this, so you will have to look at in inside the bag only. Most fleeces are rolled up in their entirety with the cut side facing out and frequently the dirtier parts are at the bottom of the bag. (That's where I always look). You will want to check for fineness, lock structure and staple length, strength, the amount of vegetable matter (VM), and overall quality. Take care when digging around to not pull the fleece apart as people like it intact when buying. Also, when you are done, try to put things back where you found them to make it easier on other patrons who are shopping.

    After you have made your selection and purchased your fleece (congrats!) be prepared to take it with you as most events do not have room for storing purchased fleeces and they can weigh several pounds each. It's a good idea to make arrangements ahead of time where to stash your bags while you continue to shop at the fair. Mornings on the first day are usually busiest and have lines to get in to fleece sales, but you can usually find good quality ones later on if you wait to avoid crowds.

    MDSW Fleece Sale

    Shopping Online

    There are several sources for buying online such as Etsy and Facebook (FB’s Raw Wool for Sale group is a popular one). When buying online, make sure to use a payment with buyer protection such as PayPal. The seller should furnish the breed, overall quality, price/lb., total weight and price, amount of VM and skirting, staple length, estimated shipping, and accurate photos. Do not buy a fleece that has heavy VM, kemp, scurf, lice (more common in mohair), lots of second cuts, breaks / weak spots, has a short staple length, or is not skirted at all. Bargain fleeces take more time than they are worth so I would not bother.

    Check the seller’s return policy and reputation before purchasing. Although I have many friends who are growers and I respect the amount of work and care they put into their farms, sometimes online transactions don’t go as planned. Most of it has to do with communication and fiber education (or lack thereof). You should expect to receive your purchase in a timely manner and for the appearance and weight quoted. Open the package immediately because wool absorbs moisture and anything packed in plastic can mildew quickly. Inspect the fleece and remove any undesirables before storing. I quarantine raw fleece to make sure I don’t bring any moths inside and try to wash it as soon as possible. If you have any questions or concerns contact the seller directly and provide a description of the issue and photos if neccessary.

    Fleece Pricing

    Try to get the best fleece for your budget, but only spend only what you are comfortable with. Fleeces can be relatively expensive because the cost of feeding and caring for the animal while it grows the precious wool is not insignificant. The value comes from knowing the source of your raw materials and supporting small local businesses. If you budget ahead of time and do your homework you will make a good choice.

    How much will you pay? First, look at “comps” for other similar fleece either online, at a fleece sale, or ask someone with experience. There's a wide range from $25-$350 depending on type of animal, breed, size, quality, cleanliness, scarcity, and locality.

    Most raw handspinning fleece is priced per pound and sold as an entire fleece. Sometimes you can split a fleece with another buyer. If you have a shopping buddy you can ask them, or if buying online you can ask if the seller will split it. Not all sellers will, but it doesn’t hurt to ask.

    How much fleece do you need/want?

    Fleece sizes and vary greatly. You can expect to lose around 20-30% of the raw weight after washing and some some fine / greasy fleeces can lose more than half, so you will likely have far less yield than you started with. If you have a specific project in mind, think about the desired finished weight and add 10% on top of that to your yield after washing.  

    What exactly are you getting?

    Raw fleece is just that - it has been sheared off the animal, rolled up as a whole, and put in a bag. Wool will have grease, dirt, vegetable matter (VM), and sometimes insects and unidentified gunk in it. Most show fleeces have been lightly skirted, which is the process of removing any dung tags, heavily soiled areas, or second cuts.

    When you get home, you will need to unroll it outside to pick through it and then scour it with wool-specific detergent like Unicorn Power Scour. If it’s your first time washing raw fleece, I highly recommend starting with a medium to long wool breed with a limited amount of grease. It’s very easy to felt fine, greasy fleece, so wait until you’ve had some practice before jumping in. Follow the directions and wash only small amounts at a time (8 oz. or less). Pick a good detergent - do not use soap, bleach, oxy clean, shampoo, or any other cleaning agents that do not have the correct pH to remove dirt safely without damaging the fiber.

    Mohair (Angora Goat Fleece)

    What impacts the price of a fleece?

    • Breed Characteristics: Some breeds cost more in general due to fineness, scarcity, and handspinning desirability. They can have a particular lock structure, crimpiness, and color definition that buyers look for. Sometimes a cross (X) (where the parents are different breeds) will give you the best characteristics of both.

    • Fineness: The finer the fleece (low micron count), the more desireable and higher the price. Usually the first clip, or shearing, will yield the softest fiber. Some animals like goats grow much coarser fiber as they age, so it’s best to buy the baby or young adult fleece. Lamb fleece can be identified by it's characteristic curly-Q lock tips. Fiber under ~ 25 microns (diameter of the fiber staple) is going to be next-to-skin soft and great for lots of projects like scarves and cowls. Upwards of 28 microns and it starts to be itchy and comfortable. Higher micron count fiber like longwools are generally durable and excellent when used for outerwear and rugs.

    • Staple Length: You want to make sure that there is adequate length for spinning (about 2.5+ inches minimum). Even if you blend a shorter staple fiber with a longer one you may get fraying and pills in your yarn.

    • Strength/Soundness: Avoid buying fleece with any breaks or weak spots. You can test this by firmly grasping both ends of a lock of fiber and quickly tugging on it while holding it next to your ear. If you hear a nice ping / twang and no breaking it’s fine.

    • Cleanliness: Covered (jacketed or blanketed) fleece will fetch a higher price. The sheep have had their fleece covered to reduce the amount of  VM and UV exposure. Some breeds do not do well with blankets, so if uncovered, check the amount of VM and avoid heavily soiled fleece that will be difficult and time consuming to process.

    • Color: This depends on what is desirable for the particular breed and if you want to dye it. Because raw fleece carries a lot of grease and dirt, expect for it to look lighter when washed.

    MDSW Fleece Sale

    Here are some prices I have seen or paid for different types of fleece. This is just my own experience and only meant to give you a general idea. Prices vary quite a bit by grower, locality, and demand. I am the Washington DC metro area and I have seen prices vary quite a bit between different festivals and seasons.

    (Note: For simplicity I grouped anything that is not fine or longwool in the medium + category.)

    Raw Fleece Price Ranges

    Breed

    $ Price / Lb. Range

    Avg. Fleece Size  (Lbs.)

    Fine

    Cormo

    $15-$25

    5-10  

    Merino

    $15-$25

    10-18

    Polwarth

    $20

    10-14

    Medium + / Other

    Bluefaced Leicester

    $12-$20

    3-5

    Corriedale

    $12-$20

    10-15

    Icelandic

    $10-$18

    4-5

    Jacob

    $12-$18

    3-5

    Romney

    $10-$15

    10-15   

    Shetland

    $10-$18

    2-4

    Longwool

    Cotswold

    $25-$40

    12-18

    Gotland

    $40-$70

    6-11

    Teeswater

    $50-$70

    10-15

    Wensleydale

    $40-$60

    15-20

    Other

    Alpaca  

    $20-$40

    3-6

    Mohair  

    $10-$30

    3-12



    Print this list out to take with you when shopping. Good luck and may the fleece be with you!

    Fleece Shopping List

    Huacaya Alpaca Fleece

    alpaca fleece at SVFF 2014 by 222handspun.com

    BFL Wool Fleece

    MDSW Fleece Sale BFL